What is the function of APOBEC3G?
What is the function of APOBEC3G?
APOBEC3G exerts innate antiretroviral immune activity against retroviruses, most notably HIV, by interfering with proper replication. However, lentiviruses such as HIV have evolved the Viral infectivity factor (Vif) protein in order to counteract this effect.
What reaction does the human APOBEC3G protein catalyze?
APOBEC3G (A3G) is a member of the cellular polynucleotide cytidine deaminases, which catalyze the deamination of cytosine (dC) to uracil (dU) in single-stranded DNA. These enzymes potently inhibit the replication of a variety of retroviruses and retrotransposons, including HIV-1.
What type of enzyme is APOBEC3A?
Apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3A, also known as APOBEC3A, or A3A is a gene of the APOBEC3 family found in humans, non-human primates, and some other mammals. It is a single-domain DNA cytidine deaminase with antiviral effects.
Where is APOBEC found?
APOBEC (apolipoprotein BmRNA-editing catalytic polypeptide) proteins are a group of cytidine deaminases, which in humans include AID and APOBEC1 (located on chromosome 12); APOBEC2 (chromosome 6); and a series of seven APOBEC3 genes, which are tandemly arrayed on human chromosome 22 .
What does Apobec stand for?
APOBEC stands for apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide. As the name suggests, this class of enzyme was originally identified as an enzyme that edits mRNA species by deaminating cytosine to uracil, which in this case produces a stop codon and truncated protein (Anant & Davidson, 2001).
What does cytidine deaminase do?
Cytidine deaminase is a key enzyme involved in the pyrimidine salvage pathway and maintains the cellular pyrimidine supply. It is encoded by the human CDA gene. In the 1960s, cytosine nucleoside analogs, such as cytarabine, were reported to contain antitumor effects.
What do Apobec proteins do?
Proteins in the APOBEC family are designated as apolipoprotein B MRNA editing catalytic polypeptides. Specific APOBEC forms have been found to inhibit viruses through several different mechanism, including nucleic acid editing.
What causes Kataegis?
The APOBEC(“apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like”) enzyme family causes predominately C→T mutations, and translesional DNA synthesis (TLS) DNA polymerase causes C→G or C→T mutations.
Why is deamination bad?
Uncontrolled cytidine deamination might generate misfolded polypeptides, dominant-negative proteins, or mutations in tumor suppressor genes, and thus contribute to tumor formation.
What is Apobec signature?
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Mutational signatures are characteristic combinations of mutation types arising from specific mutagenesis processes such as DNA replication infidelity, exogenous and endogenous genotoxins exposures, defective DNA repair pathways and DNA enzymatic editing.
How does Chromothripsis happen?
It occurs through one massive genomic rearrangement during a single catastrophic event in the cell’s history. It is believed that for the cell to be able to withstand such a destructive event, the occurrence of such an event must be the upper limit of what a cell can tolerate and survive.
What is the function of the APOBEC3G gene?
APOBEC3G (apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3G) is a human enzyme encoded by the APOBEC3G gene that belongs to the APOBEC superfamily of proteins. This family of proteins has been suggested to play an important role in innate anti-viral immunity.
How does APOBEC3G interact with the gag domain?
In virus-producing cells, APOBEC3G is packaged into HIV particles via RNA-dependent interactions with the NC domain of Gag, but it exerts its effects in newly infected cells.
What is the role of APOBEC3G in RNA editing?
Results indicate that APOBEC3G Deaminase (APOBEC3G) cytidines (A3Gctd) catalytic selectivity against RNA is dictated by both the sugar conformation and 2′-hydroxyl group. APOBEC3G expression is associated with colorectal cancer metastasis.
What is the function of cem15 / apobec-3g?
“The enzymatic activity of CEM15/Apobec-3G is essential for the regulation of the infectivity of HIV-1 virion but not a sole determinant of its antiviral activity.” Cited for: FUNCTION IN DNA C TO U EDITING, INFECTION REGULATION OF HIV-1, MUTAGENESIS OF GLU-67; CYS-100; GLU-259 AND CYS-291.