What causes refractory status epilepticus?

Published by Charlie Davidson on

What causes refractory status epilepticus?

Most of the causes of RSE can be identified within 24-72 hours of presentation, as it is commonly due to an obvious acute brain injury (stroke, trauma, etc.) or serious acute medical illness. RSE may also occur in people with epilepsy (also known as a seizure disorder).

What is refractory status epilepticus?

Background Refractory status epilepticus (RSE) is a life-threatening condition in which seizures do not respond to first- and second-line anticonvulsant drug therapy.

Is status epilepticus the same as epilepsy?

If you have epilepsy, you may have seizures repeatedly. A seizure that lasts longer than 5 minutes, or having more than 1 seizure within a 5 minutes period, without returning to a normal level of consciousness between episodes is called status epilepticus.

What medication is used to stop status epilepticus?

The benzodiazepines most commonly used to treat status epilepticus are diazepam (Valium), lorazepam (Ativan), and midazolam (Versed).

Which is the most frequent cause of treatment failure in refractory status epilepticus?

Most common causes of SE include low AED levels in patients with epilepsy, toxic metabolic encephalopathy, stroke, hypoxic ischemic injury, refractory epilepsy, brain tumor, and meningitis/encephalitis.

Which one of the following is not used in status epilepticus?

Carbamazepine and valproate Valproate is available to be given intravenously, and may be used for status epilepticus. Carbamazepine is not available in an intravenous formulation, and does not play a role in status epilepticus.

How do you break status epilepticus?

What is the treatment for status epilepticus? In hospital, there are a number of medicines doctors can use to stop status epilepticus. They usually give these medicines by injection or drip. Emergency medical services (paramedics) also carry medicine so they can start treatment as soon as they arrive.

What are the complications of status epilepticus?

Acute complications result from hyperthermia, pulmonary edema, cardiac arrhythmias, and cardiovascular collapse. Long-term complications include epilepsy (20% to 40%), encephalopathy (6% to 15%), and focal neurologic deficits (9% to 11%).

What is medically refractory epilepsy?

Refractory epilepsy occurs when your antiepilepsy medicines are no longer controlling your seizures. Often the cause of refractory epilepsy is not known. Your healthcare provider will likely give you other medicines to try to get your seizures under control.

Is there an EEG test for postanoxic myoclonus?

EEG is also emerging as an aid for identifying who may have a better chance of a good outcome in the setting of postanoxic myoclonus. There are EEG characteristics that are more closely associated with both good (CPC 1-3) and poor (CPC 4-5) outcomes.

Is there a good prognosis for postanoxic myoclonus?

An increasing amount of data, however, suggests poor outcomes in the setting of postanoxic myoclonus are not universal, and up to 9% of patients may have a good prognosis. 2 Indeed, even the 2006 practice parameter references “incidental cases” with good recovery.

How does myoclonus work as a prognostic for epilepsy?

In those who did not recover, myoclonus was time locked to highly epileptiform bursts in a suppression burst pattern, blunt cortical bursts or myoclonus without associated EEG activity. It is important to note however, that there was no difference in the prevalence of discrete seizures between the 2 groups.

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