What does Rig 1 recognize?
What does Rig 1 recognize?
RIG-I is an essential molecule in the innate immune system for recognizing cells that have been infected with a virus. These viruses can include West Nile virus, Japanese Encephalitis virus, influenza A, Sendai virus, flavivirus, and coronaviruses.
Where are rig-I like receptors found?
RLR recognition of immunostimulatory RNA. RLRs are expressed in most cell types and are primarily located in the cytosol, although recent studies showed that RIG-I may also localize to the cell nucleus27,28.
How does Rig 1 work?
RIG-like receptors (retinoic acid-inducible gene-I-like receptors, RLRs) are a type of intracellular pattern recognition receptor involved in the recognition of viruses by the innate immune system. The RLR receptors provide frontline defence against viral infections in most tissues. …
Is RIG-I an ISG?
RIG-I belongs to the IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) family, but certain cells regulate its expression through IFN-independent mechanisms. Several lines of evidence indicate that deregulated RIG-I signaling is associated with autoimmune disorders.
Does RIG-I recognize ssRNA?
RIG-I preferentially recognizes single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) over dsRNA (15, 31). ssRNAs containing a terminal 5′ triphosphate (ppp), but not 5′OH or a 5′-methylguanosine cap, bind to the RIG-I repressor domain and promote a conformational change that activates RIG-I signaling (10, 13–16).
What does MDA5 bind to?
IFIH1, also known as MDA5, is a cytoplasmic receptor that binds double-stranded RNA. Activation of IFIH1 is part of the inflammatory response to viral RNA replication, again resulting in the induction of type I IFN.
What is interferon immunity?
Interferons are proteins that are part of your natural defenses. They tell your immune system that germs or cancer cells are in your body. And they trigger killer immune cells to fight those invaders. Interferons got their name because they “interfere” with viruses and keep them from multiplying.
What do rig like receptors bind to?
1 RIG-I-Like Receptors (RLRs) The RLRs are DexD/H helicases that stably bind cytosolic viral ssRNA or dsRNA to induce production of antiviral IFNs and pro-inflammatory cytokines.
What cells express RLRs?
(C) In cDCs, macrophages and fibroblast cells, viral RNA species are preferentially recognized by RLRs. RIG-I and MDA5 recruit the adapter IPS-1 via CARDs. IPS-1 is localized to mitochondria, and recruits TRADD, which then forms a complex with FADD, caspase-8 and caspase-10 to activate NF-κB.
What cell types express NLRs?
NLRs are expressed in many cell types including immune cells and epithelial cells, although certain NLR family members are expressed primarily in phagocytes including macrophages and neutrophils.
What kind of gene is RIG-I like receptor?
RIG-I (retinoic acid-inducible gene I) is a RIG-I-like receptor dsRNA helicase enzyme that is encoded (in humans) by the DDX58 gene.
What is the role of RIG-I in RNA virus recognition?
RIG-I is a cytosolic pathogen recognition receptor. RIG-I binds to PAMP RNA. RIG-I initiates the immune response to RNA virus infection. Antiviral immunity is initiated upon host recognition of viral products via non-self molecular patterns known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs).
What are the N-terminal tandem caspases in RIG-I?
RIG-I and MDA5 also contain N-terminal tandem caspase activation and recruitment domains (CARDs) that function in signaling, which LGP2 lacks.
How is RIG-I activated by Pamp RNA?
RIG-I, the charter member of the RLR family, is activated upon binding to PAMP RNA. Activated RIG-I signals by interacting with the adapter protein MAVS leading to a signaling cascade that activates the transcription factors IRF3 and NF-κB.