What is the pathogenesis of endocarditis?

Published by Charlie Davidson on

What is the pathogenesis of endocarditis?

The pathogenesis of infective endocarditis is a complex process that re- quires at least three critical elements: preparation of the cardiac valve for bacterial colonization; adherence of circulating bacteria to the prepared valvular surface; survival of adherent bacteria, with propagation of the endocardial vegetation …

What causes prosthetic valve endocarditis?

Prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE), although uncommon, is caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci in 15% to 40% of cases. The infection is usually health care–related (resulting from inoculation at the time of surgery) and manifests within 12 months of valve placement.

What causes subacute bacterial endocarditis?

Subacute bacterial endocarditis is usually caused by streptococcal bacteria. This form of the disease usually develops on damaged valves after dental surgery involving infected gums, reproductive or urinary (genitourinary tract) surgery or operations on the gastrointestinal tract.

What are the symptoms of infective endocarditis?

What are the symptoms of infective endocarditis? The symptoms of acute IE usually begin with fever (102°–104°), chills, fast heart rate, fatigue, night sweats, aching joints and muscles, persistent cough, or swelling in the feet, legs or abdomen.

How do you get endocarditis?

Endocarditis is caused by bacteria in the bloodstream multiplying and spreading across the inner lining of your heart (endocardium). The endocardium becomes inflamed, causing damage to your heart valves. Your heart is usually well protected against infection so bacteria can pass harmlessly by.

What is the most common cause of prosthetic valve endocarditis?

Acute S. aureus infection of previously normal valves has a mortality rate of 3%. This is the most common situation in IVDAs. Coagulase-negative staphylococci cause 30%–50% of prosthetic valve endocarditis.

What is the difference between acute and subacute endocarditis?

Acute infective endocarditis develops suddenly and may become life threatening within days. Subacute infective endocarditis (also called subacute bacterial endocarditis) develops gradually and subtly over a period of weeks to several months but also can be life threatening.

How long can subacute endocarditis last?

Conclusions: Long term survival following infective endocarditis is 50% after 10 years and is predicted by early surgical treatment, age < 55 years, lack of congestive heart failure, and the initial presence of more symptoms of endocarditis.

Which type of bacteria causes endocarditis?

Subacute bacterial endocarditis (SBE) (also called endocarditis lenta) is a type of endocarditis (more specifically, infective endocarditis). It is usually caused by a form of streptococci viridans bacteria that normally live in the mouth and throat (Streptococcus mutans, mitis, sanguis or milleri).

How serious is endocarditis?

Endocarditis is an infection of the inner lining of the heart and heart valves. The condition is sometimes called infective endocarditis, and it can damage your heart, causing serious complications. Though infective endocarditis is potentially life threatening, most people who are treated with antibiotics recover.

What is the most common cause of infective endocarditis?

In general, we can say that most common causes of infective endocarditis are Streptococcus viridans and Staphylococcus aureus. Depending on the presentation of the disease, medication or surgical procedure has to be followed.

How common is endocarditis?

Endocarditis is twice as common in men of any age and is 8 times as common in elderly men as in elderly women. In children and young adults, most cases (about 75%) of endocarditis occur in those with congenital (i.e., present at birth) heart defects.

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