What is the life cycle of the influenza virus?

Published by Charlie Davidson on

What is the life cycle of the influenza virus?

The influenza virus life cycle can be divided into the following stages: entry into the host cell; entry of vRNPs into the nucleus; transcription and replication of the viral genome; export of the vRNPs from the nucleus; and assembly and budding at the host cell plasma membrane.

What is the cellular receptor for influenza?

Sialic acids (SAs) of cell surface glycoproteins and glycolipids are the receptors for the influenza virus, recognized by the viral glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA; Figure 1). The site on HA at which the cellular receptors are bound is at the distal end of the molecule.

How does the influenza virus enter a cell?

The influenza virus enters the host cell by having its hemagglutinin bind to the sialic acid found on glycoproteins or glycolipid receptors of the host. The cell then endocytoses the virus. In the acidic environment of the endosomes, the virus changes shape and fuses its envelope with the endosomal membrane.

Is Influenza an enveloped virus?

Influenza viruses are members of the family Orthomyxoviridae. This family represents enveloped viruses the genome of which consists of segmented negative-sense single-strand RNA segments.

Is the flu virus a retrovirus?

Influenza is an RNA virus that causes mild to severe respiratory symptoms in humans and other hosts.

What cell type is influenza?

Influenza viruses primarily target airway epithelial cells via α2,3- and α2,6-type receptors, but the distribution of these receptors in many species is uncertain and may be a significant factor influencing infection.

What human cells does influenza infect?

The human virus infected mainly nonciliated cells (typically <5% of infected cells were ciliated cells), whereas the avian virus infected predominantly ciliated cells (Fig.

What cells does influenza target?

The alveolar epithelial cell lining is as much a target of influenza infection as the epithelial covering of the bronchi and bronchioles. Three characteristic alveolar changes are seen in early influenza virus pneumonia: capillary thrombosis, focal necrosis of the alveolar wall, and development of hyaline membranes.

Is influenza A mRNA virus?

The nucleus is the location of all influenza virus RNA synthesis – both of the capped, polyadenylated messenger RNA (mRNA) that acts as the template for host-cell translation of viral proteins, and of the vRNA segments that form the genomes of progeny virus.

Does influenza virus lyse cells?

In addition to the neutralization of cell-free virus by antibodies to HA and the interference of virus release from infected cells by antibodies to neuraminidase (NA), influenza virus-specific antibodies bind to infected cells and are able to lyse the virus-infected cells through activation of complement (complement- …

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