Which organism produces Cyclosporine A?

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Which organism produces Cyclosporine A?

beetle larvae and best known as the producer of the anti-fungal antibiotic cyclosporin A. This fungus is a prolific producer of bioactive secondary metabolites with potential applications in medicine and agriculture. It was originally isolated from Norwegian soil sample.

WHAT IS A in Cyclosporine A?

Cyclosporin A is a cyclic nonribosomal peptide of eleven amino acids; an immunosuppressant drug widely used in post-allogeneic organ transplant to reduce the activity of the patient’s immune system, and therefore the risk of organ rejection.

What is the origin of cyclosporine?

Cyclosporin was first discovered in Norway in 1969 by Sandoz biologist Dr Hans Peter Frey from a soil sample collected in a plastic bag by a Sandoz employee on a trip (the company encouraged employees to collect such samples on business trips and holidays to search for new antibiotic drugs from fungal metabolites).

What is another name for cyclosporine?

Cyclosporine is available under the following different brand names: Neoral, Sandimmune, and Gengraf.

How is cyclosporine A produced?

Cyclosporine A is widely produced by submerged fermentation of aerobic fungi identified as Trichoderma polysporum[4] but currently identified as Tolypocladium inflatum[5].

What are the ingredients in cyclosporine?

Cyclosporine capsules, USP (NON-MODIFIED) are available in 25 mg and 100 mg strengths. Each capsule contains the following inactive ingredients: methanol, purified water, sodium lauryl sulfate and talc. The 25 mg and the 100 mg capsule shell contains gelatin, red iron oxide and titanium dioxide.

What is cyclosporine made of?

Cyclosporine A is widely produced by submerged fermentation of aerobic fungi identified as Trichoderma polysporum[4] but currently identified as Tolypocladium inflatum[5]. Since its discovery, very few studies have been carried out to search for other microbial sources for its production.

What are examples of cyclosporine?

Brand names: Gengraf, Neoral, Sandimmune. Cyclosporine comes as an oral capsule, an oral solution, eye drops, and an injectable form. Cyclosporine oral capsule is used to treat inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis. It’s also used to prevent the rejection of an organ transplant.

How long can you stay on cyclosporine?

The FDA recommends cyclosporine not be used for longer than one year. However, there are no specific guidelines for how long you should stay off cyclosporine before resuming treatment. Some doctors may prescribe the drug for more than one year.

Is cyclosporine A chemotherapy?

Combining cyclosporine with chemotherapy may prevent resistance to the drugs and allow the cancer cells to be killed. PURPOSE: Randomized phase II trial to study the effectiveness of adding cyclosporine to combination chemotherapy in treating patients with relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia.

What does cyclosporine do for eyes?

Cyclosporine is an immunosuppressant. Cyclosporine ophthalmic (for use in the eye) can increase tear production that has been reduced by inflammation in the eye(s). Cyclosporine ophthalmic is used to treat chronic dry eye that may be caused by inflammation.

Are there any interactions between Cyclosporine and herbal supplements?

Interactions of CyA with herbal extracts are not well known, but, given their increased concomitant use, it is important to know which extracts, many of which are commonly self-prescribed, can affect CyA blood concentrations.

What kind of Medicine is ciclosporin used for?

Ciclosporin. Ciclosporin, also spelled cyclosporine and cyclosporin, is an immunosuppressant medication and natural product. It is taken by mouth or by injection into a vein for rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, Crohn’s disease, nephrotic syndrome, and in organ transplants to prevent rejection.

How is the bioavailability of cyclosporine affected by other drugs?

Cyclosporine (CyA) is a well-known immunosuppressant with a narrow therapeutic window. Its bioavailability is affected by many other traditional drugs and herbal extracts. Cytochrome P-450 isoenzymes CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 and protein P-glycoprotein (P-gp) are involved in CyA bioavailability.

What kind of plants interfere with cyclosporine P-450?

About 300 species of plants are commonly used in medicine and some of them interfere with the function of cytochrome P-450 and P-gp. These include St John’s wort (SJW), grapefruit juice, ginger, chamomile, scutellariae radix, and quercetin.

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